It is similar in performance to the 9×23mm Largo round, but their very slightly different physical measurements make them incompatible with one another. It is unrelated to the 9×23mm Winchester.
Adopted in 1912, it was the service ammunition for many branches of the Austro-Hungarian military during World War I, remaining so for Austria, Romania, and Chile between the World Wars. Some MP 38 submachine guns were issued in this caliber along with 9×25mm Mauser.
Following the Anschluss in 1938, the Austrian Army was incorporated into the Wermacht, and many M1912 pistols and MP 38 submachine guns were re-barreled in 9×19mm Parabellum for standardization purposes.
After World War II, the M1912 became obsolete, and the cartridge was no longer in regular production. Italian company Fiocchi Munizioni has since brought the cartridge back into production.