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The AN-94 Abakan (Russian: АН-94 «Абака́н»), full name Avtomat Nikonova (Russian: 5,45 мм автомат Никонова образца 1994 года; lit.: 5.45 mm Nikonov assault rifle model 1994), GRAU index 6P33, is a Russian assault rifle.
The AN-94 uses a gas-recoil operation described as "delayed recoil impulse averaging," previously used by prototype weapons such as the AO-40.
The AN-94 was designed by Izhmash designer Gennadiy Nikonov. The AN-94's predecessor, the ASM, was the winning entry in the Project Abakan, a Soviet rifle program aimed at developing a high-tech successor to the AK-74. Its competitors included the AEK-971 design by Sergey Koksharov. Following the ASM's victory in the Abakan trials, the AN-94 was developed from the ASM.
While it was selected in the Abakan trials, the AN-94 was not widely adopted due to its complexity, difficult maintenance and cost, by some accounts being six times more expensive per rifle than the AK-74. It was used on a limited basis by various special units and civil services starting in 1995. Later models featured an RPK-style stock after complains that a right-handed shooter could not fire with the original stock folded, since it obstructed the trigger.
Due to poor sales and the lack of interest in further developing the AN-94, production was discontinued in 2006.
The AN-94 is chambered in the same 5.45×39mm cartridge as the AK-74, and utilizes a rotating bolt to lock the action. The internals of the system are conceptually similar to the Heckler & Koch G11, with most of the operating components grouped in a secondary internal receiver which reciprocates inside the main receiver as the gun cycles.
Also like the G11, the AN-94 features a super-fast burst mode designed to chamber and fire multiple rounds in a single cycle of the inner receiver. Because the AN-94's magazine is not part of the reciprocating group, this requires a rather novel mechanism. A pulley is mounted inside the AN-94's handguard and links the internal receiver to a cartridge shuttle via a cable. As the internal receiver moves backwards, the shuttle strips a round from the magazine and places it on a lifter directly in front, allowing the action to pick it up as it passes. In the two round burst mode the rifle first fires the chambered round, then this round as it chambers it on the rearward stroke, resulting in a 1,800 rpm two-round burst. Firing is then sustained at one shot per cycle, at a rate of 600 rpm. The pulley mechanism and cable channel located on the left side of the rifle means the magazine has to be canted several degrees to the right to make room for it.
The rear peep sight is a dramatic improvement over the standard Kalashnikov notch and post.
The distinctively-shaped muzzle device is a combination of a muzzle brake, flash hider and sound suppressor. It also has the function of controlling the expansion of propellant gases, providing a precise timing necessary for the function of the two-round burst. The muzzle device is a two-chamber design, intended to swirl and control the expansion of the propellant gases.
- Russian AN-94 self-loading rifle - Armament Research Services
- Ружье" 1_1998 "Эйнштейн, Чехов и Платон?
- Oruzhie magazine, Pages 6/7/8, Issue No1 1998.
- "Оружие" 1_1999 "Под шифром "Абакан"
- "Калашников" 4_2001 "Что ждет "Абакан"?"
- "Мастер-Ружье" 60_2002 "Будет ли новый автомат"
- Nowa Technika Wojskowa 2002-03/04.
- "Ружье" 47_2007 "Какой "Абакан" лучше?"
- "Калашников" 4_2007 "Не перевелись еще "специалисты на Руси..."
- "Калашников" 5_2007 "АН-94 "Абакан"-это просто"
- На пути к "Абакану"
- "Калашников" 6_2007 "Методом проб и ошибок"
- "Калашников" 3_2008 "Разбираем "Абакан"