Jean Cantius Garand, more commonly known as John Garand or John C. Garand, was a Canadian-American firearms designer best known for his work with the M1 Garand.
Garand had a fondness of machinery and target shooting, which blended into his interest in gun designing, eventually taking a more vocational turn in 1917. That same year, the United States Army took bids on designing a light machine gun, with Garand's design being selected; unfortunately, the first model of the weapon was only built in 1919, which was a little bit too late for use during World War I, which had already ended a year prior. While he was working at Springfield Armory in Springfield, Massachusetts, he also built the Garand Model 1919, and was tasked with building a semi-automatic rifle based on a gas operating principle later. The resulting rifle was the M1 Garand, which took fifteen years of perfection to create the first prototype for the US Army. It later patented in 1932 and was approved by the US Army on January 9, 1936, and went into mass production in 1940. With the M1 Garand undergoing mass production, it replaced the M1903 Springfield as the American service rifle. After his work in the 1940s, he designed a carbine for the 1940 US light rifle trials and a prototype bullpup rifle known as the T31. Garand retired in 1953 as he was designing the second prototype of the T31, and because of that, the second prototype of the T31 was never finished, and remained so. The T31 project was scrapped, and the gun was retired to the Springfield Armory Museum in 1961.
Garand was most well known for his work on the M1 Garand rifle.
There have been ongoing disputes on how to pronounce his last name, Garand. The name has been pronounced variably as "guh-rand" or "ger-rand". However, descendants of John Garand and his close friend, General Julian Hatcher, generally agree it is the latter pronunciation, rhyming with "errand".
- He never received any royalties for his M1 rifle; despite there being a decision by the US Congress to award him $100,000, it never came to pass.