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Telescoped ammunition is an ammunition design in which the projectile is partially or completely enveloped by the propellant. Examples of this concept include ammunition for firearms and artillery weapons. Some forms of telescoped ammunition are caseless with a solid propellant body.

Compared to traditional cartridges, telescoped rounds can weigh less with similar ballistics to a comparable traditional mass round. Telescoped rounds also avoid the risk of the projectile becoming damaged during the loading process. The projectile is also embedded within the casing, giving the round an appearance similar to a shotgun shell.

In the 1960s, Hercules, Inc. designed and patented a telescoped caseless round. These rounds were proposed for a lockless light machine gun produced by Hughes Tool Co. (which became Hughes Helicopters & Ordinance Systems in 1972), which was actually chambered for 5.56×30mm, which were also telescoped in a flat, square casing called a "chiclet". The weapon was also advertised as being compatible with caseless ammunition.

During the Advanced Combat Rifle program, the concept of telescoped ammunition was explored by Steyr Mannlicher with their ACR and Ares, Inc. with their AIWS, along with McDonnell Douglas with its own AIWS.

In 2012, cased telescoped ammunition for the LSAT light machine gun has reached technology readiness level 7. In August of 2013, AAI was awarded a $2.05 million contract to continue the development of parts for the LSAT program. Part of this contract is to refine the 5.56mm caliber cased telescoped ammunition and develop 7.62mm cased telescoped rounds.

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